WHAT IS THE BOLOGNA PROCESS?
The Bologna Process is a reform process between European Union countries aimed at creating the European Union Higher Education Area. Currently, 47 countries share this process with the participation of countries outside the European Union and finally Kazakhstan.
WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF THE BOLOGNA PROCESS?
The objectives of the Bologna Process can be sorted as follows:
* Output-based training (output / gain)
* Increase the mobility of students, teachers and administrative staff (mobility)
* Comparable national and international education systems (transparency)
* Facilitate the recognition of national and international higher education institutions (recognition)
* To create an area of Higher Education that is constantly self-supervising, monitoring and nurturing the entire process with the participation of internal and external stakeholders. For these purposes;
* Create and disseminate the Quality Assurance and European Qualifications Framework (QF) in higher education
* Create transparent, comparable higher education diplomas and / or degrees
* Applying the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) to facilitate mobility
During the Bologna Process, it was decided to conduct studies to create a Diploma Octet to ensure comparability in the mobility of graduate students. Therefore, competencies and levels of competence are defined. TYYÇ (Turkish Higher Education Qualifications Framework) refers to what a person who has successfully completed any higher education degree can know, what they can do and what they will be competent in. The National Qualifications Framework, on the other hand, describes qualifications in an education system at the national level and their relationship to each other. In other words, the National Qualifications Framework is a system in which qualifications recognized and associated with national and international stakeholders are structured in a specific order. Through this system, all qualifications and other learning achievements in higher education can be explained and consistently associated with each other.
10 ACTION TITLES OF THE BOLOGNA PROCESS
The 10 acts of the Bologna Process are as follows:
1. Creating higher education diplomas and / or degrees that are easy to understand and comparable (developing the application of a Diploma Octet)
2. Transition to two-stage degree system as Bachelor and Master in higher education
3. Applying the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)
4. Ensuring and disseminating mobility of students and academics
5. Creating and disseminating a network of quality assurance systems in higher education
6. Developing the European dimension in higher education
7. Promoting lifelong learning
8. Ensuring active participation of students and higher education institutions in the process
9. Making European Higher Education attractive
10. Establishing a synergy between the European Research Area and the European Higher Education Area
BOLOGNA PROCESS-MEMBER COUNTRIES / COUNTRY GROUPS AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
At the Bologna conference on 19 June 1999, the following 29 countries participated in the Bologna Process.
Countries that are members of the Bologna Process:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and Ireland
At the 19 May 2001 Prague Ministerial Conference, the number of countries participating in the Bologna Process was 33:
Croatia, Cyprus, Liechtenstein and Turkey
At the Berlin Ministerial Conference on 19 September 2003, the number of members increased to 40:
Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vatican Republic, Russian Federation, Serbia-Montenegro and Macedonia
At the Bergen Ministerial Conference on 18-19 May 2005, the number of countries involved in the process reached 45:
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine
Following Montenegro's declaration of independence in 2006, the number of member states increased to 46 with the accession of Montenegro to the process by the decision taken at the London Ministerial Conference, which was implemented in 2007.
At the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Meeting held on March 11-12, 2010, the Bologna Process has expanded to a wide area, with 47 countries participating in the process.
International organizations that are members of the Bologna Process:
* European Commission
* Council of Europe
* European Association of Universities
* European Association of Higher Education Institutions
* European National Student Associations
* United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization- Center for Higher Education
* European Structure of International Education
* European Higher Education Quality Assurance Association
* European Union of industrial and employers' Confederations